Share on Facebook Computers are made from a plethora of different metals, plastics, alloys and other materials. Some materials are common, like copper, while others are more unfamiliar, like 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, and some are even incredibly rare.
It grew out of an amalgam of solid-state physics, metallurgy, and chemistry, since the rich variety of materials properties cannot be understood within the context of any single classical discipline. With a basic understanding of the origins of properties, materials can be selected or designed for an enormous variety of applications, ranging from structural steels to computer microchips.
Materials science is therefore important to engineering activities such as electronics, aerospace, telecommunications, information processing, nuclear power, and energy conversion.
This article approaches the subject of materials science through five major fields of application: The discussions focus on the fundamental requirements of each field of application and on the abilities of various materials to meet those requirements.
The many materials studied and applied in materials science are usually divided into four categories: The sources, processing, and fabrication of these materials are explained at length in several articles: Atomic and molecular structures are discussed in chemical elements and matter.
The applications covered in this article are given broad coverage in energy conversiontransportation, electronicsand medicine. Materials for energy An industrially advanced society uses energy and materials in large amounts.
Transportation, heating and cooling, industrial processes, communications—in fact, all the physical characteristics of modern life—depend on the flow and transformation of energy and materials through the techno-economic system.
These two flows are inseparably intertwined and form the lifeblood of industrial society.
The relationship of materials science to energy usage is pervasive and complex. At every stage of energy production, distribution, conversion, and utilization, materials play an essential role, and often special materials properties are needed.
Remarkable growth in the understanding of the properties and structures of materials enables new materials, as well as improvements of old ones, to be developed on a scientific basis, thereby contributing to greater efficiency and lower costs. Classification of energy-related materials Energy materials can be classified in a variety of ways.
For example, they can be divided into materials that are passive or active. Those in the passive group do not take part in the actual energy-conversion process but act as containers, tools, or structures such as reactor vessels, pipelines, turbine blades, or oil drills.
Active materials are those that take part directly in energy conversion—such as solar cells, batteries, catalysts, and superconducting magnets. Another way of classifying energy materials is by their use in conventional, advanced, and possible future energy systems.
In conventional energy systems such as fossil fuels, hydroelectric generation, and nuclear reactors, the materials problems are well understood and are usually associated with structural mechanical properties or long-standing chemical effects such as corrosion.
Advanced energy systems are in the development stage and are in actual use in limited markets.Computers are made from a plethora of different metals, plastics, alloys and other materials. Some materials are common, like copper, while others are more unfamiliar, like 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, and some are even incredibly rare.
This type of communication includes your brochures, various forms of advertising, contact letters, telephone calls, Web sites and anything else that makes the public aware of what you do.
Image is extremely important in external corporate communications! The aim of the journal is to publish papers that advance the field of computational materials science through the application of modern computational methods alone or in conjunction with experimental techniques to investigate existing inorganic and organic materials as well as to discover new materials.
Communication requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur .
All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Uses of computer communications 4 Computer-oriented communication 4 the massive growthof the Internet,has introducedthegeneral publicto computers in communication.
The end result is to allow the sharing of computer-based The second difference concerns the presentation of the material. Most text-books on computer communications.